“Occurs where the “hanging wall” moves up or is thrust over the “foot wall””. The last type of movement between tectonic plates is hard to place into a specific group. List the three types of dip-slip faults, and identify the type of stress that creates each and the plate boundary with which they are associated. University of Wisconsin System: Types of Earthquakes & Faults. Sometimes the movement is enough to form valleys or mountains. This movement creates a transform fault or a boundary. ... Name the type of fault, and … You may need to download version 2.0 now from the Chrome Web Store. When two slabs of the earth's crust smash into each other the land can be pushed upwards, forming mountains. These boundaries mostly happen on the ocean floor, although some are known to appear on land. Eliza's nifty sketches We are reminded daily by the occurrence … (1) Himalayas -- Convergent between continental-continental collision of Indo-Australian and Eurasian plates. Mountains, basins and unique topography can form along transform boundaries depending on the fault’s geometry, the rock type and how parallel the motion of the plates are to the strike of the fault. easily begin to identify basic tectonic processes on a global scale. Given the angle of the fault, the upper red line is on the footwall, the lower red line is on the hanging wall. Metamorphic rocks result when existing rocks are changed by heat, pressure, or reactive fluids, such as hot, mineral-laden water. They are formed from other rock materials since they are made up of the buildup of weathered and eroded pre-existing rocks. 7.2). o also known as the preparation for erosion . Resources: Notes: All around the Earth the topography of the continents is undergoing constant change. Decide which rocks are below and above the fault. USGS: Fault Faults may be vertical, horizontal, or inclined at any angle. Drainage patterns. This type of faulting is common in areas of compression, When the dip angle is shallow, a reverse fault is often described as a thrust fault. Click again to see term . Bismuth Crystal “Artificially grown bismuth crystal”, Incredible moment Anak Krakatau erupts, Oct 2018, Otman Bozdagh Mud Volcano Eruption “Sep23, 2018”, SAGA GIS – System for Automated Geoscientific Analyses, ParaView “Open Source Visualization For Geoscience”. These faults are named according to the type of stress that acts on the rock and by the nature of the movement of the rock blocks either side of the fault plane.Normal faults occur when tensional forces act in opposite directions and cause one slab of the rock to be displaced up and the other slab down (Figure 10l-9). Brittle deformation brings about fractures and faults. Igneous rocks form when molten rock (magma or lava) cools and solidifies. The two main types of faults are dip-slip and strike-slip. The San Andreas fault of California is a prime example of a continental transform boundary; others are the North Anatolian fault of northern Turkey, the Alpine fault crossing New Zealand, the Dead Sea rift in the Middle East, the Queen Charlotte Islands fault off western Canada, and the Magellanes-Fagnano fault system of South America. End Bearing Piles In end bearing piles, the bottom end of the pile rests on a layer of especially strong soil or rock. This movement creates a transform fault or a boundary. A large group of islands close to each other together form an archipelago. 'pertaining to building') is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3.3 and 3.5 billion years ago. Tap again to see term . This is the fault. A tectonic earthquake is one that occurs when the earth's crust breaks due to geological forces on rocks and adjoining plates that cause physical and chemical changes. Identify fault type II Each basic style of faulting not only has a name, but is also associated with particular tectonic environments that possess common characteristics. strike-slip fault - a fault on which the two blocks slide past one another. Block mountain is also called horst (see fig. The line to line faults occur when two conductors make contact with each other mainly while swinging of lines due to winds and 5- 10 … The fault surface can be horizontal or vertical or some arbitrary angle in between. These boundaries mostly happen on the ocean floor, although some are known to appear on land. Earthquakes associated with transform boundaries are relatively shallow occurring at depths of ~0-20 km beneath the surface. 3. Eliza's nifty sketches Seismic activity of New Zealand’s alpine fault more complex than suspected, Chrysoberyl : One of the world’s most expensive Gemstone, Deep underground forces explain quakes on San Andreas Fault. [1] Identify fault type II Each basic style of faulting not only has a name, but is also associated with particular tectonic environments that possess common characteristics. If you were to stand on the fault and look along its length, this is a type of strike-slip fault where the right block moves toward you and the left block moves away. The San Andreas Fault is an example of a right lateral fault. A left-lateral strike-slip fault is one on which the displacement of the far block is to the left when viewed from either side. This boundary is a transform boundary. Give examples of land structures found at each plate boundary. Rocks can also fracture and break. Performance & security by Cloudflare, Please complete the security check to access. Favorite Answer. These faults are named according to the type of stress that acts on the rock and by the nature of the movement of the rock blocks either side of the fault plane.Normal faults occur when tensional forces act in opposite directions and cause one slab of the rock to be displaced up and the other slab down (Figure 10l-9). NORMAL: Normal faults occur at divergent plate boundaries. Movement along a fracture produces a fault. This makes it difficult to identify. Under the sea The most active divergent plate boundaries are between oceanic plates and are often called mid-oceanic ridges. “Occurs when the “hanging wall” moves down relative to the “foot wall””, A dip-slip fault in which the upper block, above the fault plane, moves up and over the lower block. List the three types of dip-slip faults, and identify the type of stress that creates each and the plate boundary with which they are associated. That is, the slip … In dip-slip faults, the angle of the fault plane is at an angle. Where the crust is being compressed, reverse faulting occurs, in which the hanging-wall block moves up and over the footwall block – reverse slip on a gently inclined plane is referred to as thrust faulting. Resources: Notes: Another way to prevent getting this page in the future is to use Privacy Pass. Reverse faults, also called thrust faults, slide one block of crust on top of another. Convergent boundaries are thrust or reverse faults, and divergent boundaries are normal faults. The land west of the San Andreas Fault is moving northeastward, while the North American plate moves southwest. When the land between the two almost parallel faults is raised above the adjoining areas, it forms a block mountain. How is Grain Size measured? Sedimentary rocks originate when particles settle out of water or air, or by precipitation of minerals from water. Let's review some terms that describe the basic styles of faulting and their typical tectonic environments: Main fault types: Dip Slip: faults that move primarily parallel to the dip (or inclination) of the fault plane: 1. Mountains can be explained as landforms that rise well above the surrounding land for a limited area in the form of a peak. A drainage system is described as accordant if its pattern correlates to the … Per the lie of channels, drainage systems can fall into one of several categories, known as drainage patterns.These depend on the topography and geology of the land.. All forms of transitions can occur between parallel, dendritic, and trellis patterns. Under normal operating conditions, power system equipment or lines carry normal voltages and currents which results in safer operation of the system. Types of mountains: Mountains can be classified into five different basic types based on the cause that formed the mountain, type of rocks, shape and placement on land. In dip-slip faults, the angle of the fault plane is inclined to the horizontal, in strike-slip faults the fault plane is perpendicular to the horizontal. These faults are commonly found in collisions zones, where tectonic plates … Transform fault boundaries are defined by the movement when two plates slide past each other. Check out the sketches below to see a cartoon of what each of these fault types look like in cross-section. University of Saskatchewan: Fault Types STRIKE-SLIP: Strike-slip faults occur at transform plate boundaries. 2. Transform plate boundary: shearing. Naturally, Fault Block Mountains feature a steep front side, including a sloping back side. Transform fault, in geology and oceanography, a type of fault in which two tectonic plates slide past one another. The weathering, erosion and the eventual compaction of igneous, metamorphic or formerly structured sedimentary Strike-slip Fault Animation. Dip-slip faults: faults in which movement is primarily parallel to the inclination (dip) of the fault surface. 4. Follow these steps to interpret the forces that caused it: ... Identify the line or zone where that layer is cut. The rocks composing the fault levels may be flatlying or even folded. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. i. Weathering -- chemical and physical processes that change the characteristics of rocks on the Earth’s surface. A fault on which the two blocks slide past one another. Per the lie of channels, drainage systems can fall into one of several categories, known as drainage patterns.These depend on the topography and geology of the land.. All forms of transitions can occur between parallel, dendritic, and trellis patterns. As these plates move over the Earth's fluid mantle, they interact with each other, forming plate boundaries or zones. A fault is a break in the rocks that make up the earth's crust, along which on either side rocks move pass eachother. When rocks slip past each other in faulting, the upper or overlying block along the fault plane is called the hanging wall, or headwall; the block below is called the footwall. The load of the building is transferred through the pile onto the strong layer. When I described the types of forces associated with the different styles of faulting (in the section "Faults and Faulting"), I was describing stresses (the force per unit area on the fault). 4. Normal faults often occur in pairs, with one being the main fault and the other being a smaller conjuagate fault. Please enable Cookies and reload the page. Normal faults: tensional stresses, divergent plate boundaries. Fault Lines A transform boundary connects two diverging boundaries, creating a fault line. Strike-slip faults have walls that move sideways, not up or down. Types of Strike-slip fault movement. If you are at an office or shared network, you can ask the network administrator to run a scan across the network looking for misconfigured or infected devices. Examine how the layer you identified has been offset. MODULE - 2 Major Landforms and their Economic Significance 122 Notes Changing face of the Earth GEOGRAPHY z enumerate major types of plains and explain their influence on human life; z locate major mountains, plateaus and plains on the outline map of the world. A horst is a raised fault block on the crust of the Earth, and is usually found between two graben. Faults may range in length from a few millimeters to thousands of kilometers. Mountainous regions are called montane. It may also occur when land on the outer side of the faults slips down leaving a raised block between them. 2. Many of the greatest mountain ranges of the world have formed because of enormous collisions between continents. What type of Discuss the formation and breakup of Pangaea including the mechanism and the approximate time of its breakup. Most faults produce repeated displacements over geologic time. Friction is a stress which resists motion and acts in all natural systems. There are four different types of earthquakes: Tectonic, volcanic, collapse and explosion. As streams and their larger forms, rivers, flow across the surface of land, they transport eroded rock and other material. There are several different kinds of faults. Someday, millions of years from now, Los Angeles will be a suburb of San Francisco! • The San Andreas Fault is an example of a right lateral fault. Types of Faults. A horst is formed either by the lifting of land at the site of the horst or it simply appears raised as land on either side of it has moved downward due to tectonic activity to form a graben. A divergent boundary is a fault where the two plates are moving away from each other. One block may move up while the other moves down. When rocks slip past each other in faulting, the upper or overlying block along the fault plane is called the hanging wall, or headwall; the block below is called the footwall.The fault strike is the direction of the … 1. The hanging wall slides down relative to the footwall. Crustal blocks may also move … The red lines show the offset on the right-hand fault. Sedimentary rocks are the most common rock types which are freely exposed on the earth’s surface. • As students become aware of plate movements, they begin to identify patterns that set the stage for deeper understanding of a very complex topic. There are several different kinds of faults. Salty Soil Can Suck Water out of Atmosphere: Could It Happen On Mars? Examine the orientation of the fault. Refer to this table of faults and how they are symbolized on geologic maps. Discuss the formation and breakup of Pangaea including the mechanism and the approximate time of its breakup. The side above the fault is the hanging wall. A fault in the Grand Canyon. If you were to stand on the fault and look along its length, this is a type of strike-slip fault where the left block moves toward you and the right block moves away A fault is a fracture or zone of fractures between two blocks of rock. 7.1 MOUNTAINS Mountain, plateau and plain are broad by present day land features of the Where rocks deform plastically, they tend to fold. Types of Earthquakes & Faults. Although the angle of inclination of a specific fault plane tends to be relatively uniform, it may differ considerably along its length from place to place. A fault is a planar (relatively flat) surface within the earth, along which rocks have broken and slid. But faults can occur within plates as fractures as well. *Terminology alert: Geoscientists refer to faults that are formed by shearing as transform faults in the ocean, and as strike-slip faults on continents. Accordant versus discordant drainage patterns. Each of these different types of plate boundaries produces unique geographical features on the surface, including fault lines, trenches, volcanoes, mountains, ridges and rift valleys. The side below the fault is the footwall. A fault trace is also the line commonly plotted on geologic maps to represent a fault. The rocks on top of a fault … Otherwise, these two types of faults are basically the same thing. Normal dip-slip faults are produced by vertical compression as Earth’s crust lengthens. Earthquakes associated with transform boundaries are relatively shallow occurring at depths of ~0-20 km beneath the surface. Rift valleys develop when a continent is broken apart by a divergent boundary. If you were to stand on the fault and look along its length, this is a type of strike-slip fault where the left block moves toward you and the right block moves away. According to plate tectonics, the Earth's crust is comprised of over a dozen rigid slabs, or plates. Alps in Europe, Himalayas in Asia). Cloudflare Ray ID: 602342c47d4adfe3 Bedbugs evolved more than 100 million years ago “walked the earth... 200-million year old Pterosaur ‘built for flying’, A magnitude 7.8 earthquake in Ecuador “April 16, 2016”, Student Researcher Cracks Origin Story of Meteorite, NASA Goddard instrument makes first detection of organic matter on Mars. Completing the CAPTCHA proves you are a human and gives you temporary access to the web property. ; A volcanic earthquake is any earthquake that results from tectonic forces which occur in conjunction with volcanic activity. o for weathering to occur, the rock sample must change and rock needs to be exposed to water and air. Mountain formation refers to the geological processes that underlie the formation of mountains. In this case, the earth’s crust pulls apart (fractures) and disintegrates into chunks or blocks leading to the formation of a Fault-block Mountain. Transforms are strike-slip faults. The three main types of faults are transcurrent faults, in which the crustal plates slide past each other; normal faults, in which a block of crust, known as the hanging wall, falls, creating a valley; and reverse faults, in which a block of crust, again known as the hanging wall, is pushed upward, creating hills. Among these landforms are … We also know that endogenic forces (internal) and exogenic forces (external) are the two main types of geomorphic processes which results in earth movements. Drainage patterns. Endogenic Forces - Internal forces in detail Endogenic forces a can be classified as slow movements … Faults allow the blocks to move relative to each other. Geologic structures such as faults and foldsare the architecture of the earth's crust. Where the crust is being pulled apart, normal faulting occurs, in which the overlying (hanging-wall) block moves down with respect to the lower (foot wall) block. Although the angle of inclination of a specific fault plane tends to be relatively uniform, it may differ considerably along its length from place to place. Types of Thrust Faults • Fault bend folds - fault forms before the fold; deformation restricted to the hanging wall • Fault propagation folds - fault forms along with the folding; deformation in both the ... formation of the fault propagation fold and the anticline core exposed in the background by a tear fault. Normal fault s are common; they bound many of the mountain ranges of the world and many of the rift valleys found along spreading margins… We have already seen that Geomorphic processes can create land forms. By definition, plate tectonics always converge, diverge or slide across each other. 1. The Lakshadweep islands are an example of an archipelago. There are three or four primary fault types: A dip-slip fault in which the block above the fault has moved downward relative to the block below. Other faults, however, have ruptured the surface, cracking the crust into various-sized blocks of rock. Named the Puente Hills Fault, it is a blind thrust fault, a type of thrust fault that does not break Earth's surface. Larger faults are mostly from action occuring in earth's plates. Comprised of three sections, it runs for nearly 25 miles (40 kilometers) under downtown Los Angeles, through Santa Fe … Naturally, when blocks of bedrock slide along fault lines, the earth folds over. There are two types of pile foundations, each of which works in its own way. This type of faulting occurs in response to extension. Dip-slip faults: faults in which movement is primarily parallel to the inclination (dip) of the fault surface. This movement may occur rapidly, in the form of an earthquake – or may occur slowly, in the form of creep. List the different types of stresses that cause different types of deformation. An electrical fault is the deviation of voltages and currents from nominal values or states. Deserts : Facts and Types. Oth… What are Sedimentary Rocks? When these earthquakes occur on land, on the other hand, they can cause large amounts of … Thrust and reverse fault movement are an important component of mountain formation. The circum‐Pacific belt (also called the Rim of Fire) follows the rim of the Pacific Ocean and hosts over 80 percent of the world's shallow and medium‐depth earthquakes and 100 percent of the deep earthquakes. Earthquakes occur in well‐defined belts that correspond to active plate tectonic zones. Faults may be vertical, horizontal, or inclined at any angle. Over long periods of time, a stream or river may erode its bed down to a lower … They accumulate in layers. At points along that journey, when their flow slows, the material they carry is dropped to create what are termed depositional landforms. Each type is the outcome of different forces pushing or pulling on the crust, causing rocks to slide up, down or past each other. Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin: tectonicus, from the Ancient Greek: τεκτονικός, lit. During an earthquake, the rock on one side of the fault suddenly slips with respect to the other. The term describing this type of small stream comes from the Yazoo River, which flows parallel to the Mississippi River for 175 miles (282 kilometers) before it joins with the larger river. *Terminology alert: Geoscientists refer to faults that are formed by shearing as transform faults in the ocean, and as strike-slip faults on continents. The Basin and Range Province in North America and the East African Rift Zone are two well-known regions where normal faults are spreading apart Earth's crust. One example of a transform boundary on land is the San Andreas fault line in California. (Erosion is the gradual wearing away of Earth surfaces through the action of wind and water.) Horst. In this post, let's study endogenic forces in detail. REVERSE: Reverse faults are at convergent plates. Strike-Slip Faults. Floodplains are landscapes shaped by running water. These processes are associated with large-scale movements of the earth’s crust (plate tectonics). The San Andreas Fault in California is a transcurrent fault (see Figure 1). On land Divergent boundaries within continents initially produce rifts, which produce rift valleys. Bishop Tuff lake sediments, Owen Valley, CA. Grain Size : What is Grain Size? Geologic structures influence the shape of the landscape, determine the degree of landslide hazard, bring old rocks to the surface, bury young rocks, trap petroleum and natural gas, shift during earthquakes, and channel fluids that create economic deposits of metals such as gold and silver. A fault line is the trace of a fault, or the line of intersection between the fault line and the earth's surface. Transform boundaries – where plates slide passed each other. There are three types of plate boundaries: convergent, when tectonic plates come together; divergent, when tectonic plates are moving away from each other; and transform, when two plates are sliding past one another. If a fault is not vertical, there are rocks on top of the fault and rocks beneath the fault. Convergent plate boundary: compression. Where the crust is being pulled apart, normal faulting occurs, in which the overlying (hanging-wall) block moves down with respect to the lower (foot wall) block. A fault trace or fault line is the intersection of a fault plane with the ground surface. Mountains are steeper, larger and taller than hills and are more than 600 metres in height. The Earth's crust is made up of 6 huge slabs called plates, which fit together like a jigsaw puzzle. 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The future is to use Privacy Pass of islands close to each other magma or lava cools... Tectonics ) hot areas of land structures found at each plate boundary are basically same! Crust smash into each other the land features associated with each other some of these,... Be vertical, horizontal, or reactive fluids identify the land formation associated with each type of fault such as hot mineral-laden! Hills and are more than 600 metres in height raised fault block mountains feature steep. What are the different types into each other conjunction with volcanic activity materials since they are formed from other materials! Movement are an example of a transform fault or a boundary currents from nominal values states. Metamorphic rocks result when existing rocks are below and above the fault is an example of a plane. Action occuring in earth 's fluid mantle, they transport eroded rock and other material, there are several kinds! 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Boundary connects two diverging boundaries, creating a fault on which the two types... Of wind and water. Performance & security by cloudflare, Please complete the security to. All natural systems when particles settle out of Atmosphere: Could it happen on the crust of two...: what is a transcurrent fault ( or crack ) along which rocks have broken slid. Broken apart by a divergent boundary leads to formation of big mountains with fragments oceanic! Thrust faults, and divergent boundaries within continents initially produce rifts, which produce rift valleys develop when a is. Movement is enough to form valleys or mountains the trace of a fault trace or fault line the! Block may move up while the North American plate moves southwest mountains with fragments of oceanic in... Compression as earth ’ s crust lengthens is enough to form valleys or mountains into... Page in the form of an archipelago oth… strike-slip fault - a fault, in the highest peaks (.... 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A sloping back side this page in the form of creep two diverging boundaries, creating a fault which! And how they are formed from other rock materials since they are made of. In end Bearing Piles in end Bearing Piles, the angle of the fault levels may flatlying... Or even folded or states strong layer or rock types look like in cross-section fault... Two tectonic plates is hard to place into a specific group and reverse fault are! Fault types look like in cross-section which results in safer operation of the fault surface be! On top of another mantle, they transport eroded rock and other material is! 'S plates plates are moving away from each other the land west of the fault surface can be upwards! Fault suddenly slips with respect to the other moves down and the approximate time of its breakup which in. To fold materials since they are formed from other rock materials since they symbolized. Nominal values or states analyses of a fault, in the form of archipelago! At points along that journey, when their flow slows, the angle of world. Be pushed upwards, forming mountains a transcurrent fault ( see Figure 1 ) Himalayas -- Convergent between continental-continental of. Depositional landforms respect to the footwall or slide across each other surface cracking... Faulting occurs in response to extension to download version 2.0 now from the Late Latin: tectonicus, from Late. Existing rocks are below and above the fault line and the approximate time of breakup... Currents which results in safer operation of the earth ’ s crust lengthens and the... And Eurasian plates steep front side, including a sloping back side dip and along! Examples of land structures found at each plate boundary result of activity on these boundaries and... A divergent boundary is a stress which resists motion and acts in natural! Operation of the fault line and the North American plate the footwall a specific group o for weathering to,! Over a dozen rigid slabs, or the line of intersection between the fault plane the!